Baudhayana 700 B.C.E.
This is a good book if you are interested in the history of math
Bourbaki, Nicolas (1998), Elements of the History of Mathematics, Berlin, Heidelberg, and New York: Springer-Verlag, 301 pages, ISBN 3540647678, http://www.amazon.com/Elements-History-Mathematics-Nicolas-Bourbaki/dp/3540647678/ .
I am going to continue pointing out the contributions made by certain peoples to mathematics as we go on.
Its good to note that for a civilization to make a contribution to math, it must satisty a number of other requirements first. Among them is not have a starving populace and not be wiped out by war. It is a bad work enviroment